Flaxseed & Breast Cancer Survival: Clinical Evidence

Flaxseed For Breast Cancer SurvivalBy Michael Greger, M.D. NutrionalFacts.org

The population data looked so promising that researchers decided to put lignans to the test by feeding women flaxseeds, the most concentrated source of lignans, to see what would happen. The incidence of breast cancer is increasing in the Western world and there is an urgent need for such studies.

One of the ways the chemotherapy drug, Tamoxifen, works is by boosting the levels of angiogenesis inhibitors like endostatin, which is a protein the body makes to try to starve tumors of their blood supply.

Using a technique called microdialysis, where you can stick a catheter into a woman’s breast and kind of suck out some of the fluid bathing the breast cells. If you give women Tamoxifen for 6 weeks, the levels of endostatin within the breast tend to go up, which is a good thing, because it helps stop tumors from hooking up a blood supply. And the same thing happens when you instead add a little under a 1/4 cup of ground flaxseeds to their daily diet. The flaxseed doesn’t seem as powerful as the chemo, but further study was definitely warranted…

And here it is: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of flaxseeds in breast cancer patients. Between the time of first biopsy and surgery, patients were randomized: either the treatment or the placebo group; either a flaxseed-containing muffin or a control placebo muffin.

Why flaxseeds? Again, they’re the richest source of lignans, with levels up to 800 times higher than that of 5 dozen other plant foods tested in the vegetarian diet.

They went all out: the muffins were wrapped up, labeled with numerical code, and the coded muffin packages were then dispensed.

So what happened? Well, muffin compliance was good. (A sentence you don’t often read!) Remember they got a biopsy of the tumor before the study started and then a little over a month later, went in for surgery to get the tumor removed. So they had tumor samples before and after 5 weeks of flax or no flax. Those lucky enough to be randomized into the flax group saw, on average, their tumor cell proliferation go down, cancer cell death go up, and their c-erbB2 score go down, which is a marker of cancer aggressiveness and potential for forming metastases and spreading.

They concluded: “Dietary flaxseed has the potential to reduce tumor growth in patients with breast cancer.” And this was just in 5 weeks! “If the therapeutic index seen in this short-term study can be sustained over a long-term period,” “flaxseed, which is inexpensive and readily available, may be a potential dietary alternative or adjunct to currently used breast cancer drugs.”

Michael Greger M.D.About Michael Greger M.D.

Michael Greger, M.D., is a physician, author, and internationally recognized professional speaker on a number of important public health issues. Dr. Greger has lectured at the Conference on World Affairs, the National Institutes of Health, and the International Bird Flu Summit, testified before Congress, appeared on The Dr. Oz Show and The Colbert Report, and was invited as an expert witness in defense of Oprah Winfrey at the infamous “meat defamation” trial. Currently Dr. Greger proudly serves as the Director of Public Health and Animal Agriculture at the Humane Society of the United States.

Yoga Improves Quality of Life Among Breast Cancer Patients, Studies Show

By Michelle Whitmer, Medical Writer & Editor For The Mesothelioma Center

Yoga Improves Quality of Life Among Breast Cancer Patients, Studies Show

To anyone coping with breast cancer, the promise of better health, a quieter mind and finding greater meaning in the cancer experience could sound like a miracle. And it certainly felt like a miracle to the women who reported such benefits after participating in scientific studies that tracked the effects of yoga on breast cancer patients.

Though the benefits of yoga are widely reported by its practitioners, scientific studies on the ancient system are infrequently funded. Because doctors seldom hear about the clinical benefits of yoga for cancer patients, some are reluctant to recommend yoga as a complementary therapy.

Though few scientific studies were conducted on yoga in the past, they are starting to receive more funding and are becoming more common. Several studies have examined the effects of yoga on breast cancer patients, and more are in the pipeline. Progress in clinical research may be slow, but the results confirm what practitioners have touted for ages: Yoga improves mental, emotional and physical health.

Yoga Calms the Mind and Eases Symptoms

A yoga study conducted at the Integrative Medicine Center at MD Anderson’s Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, included 59 women with stage I through III breast cancer who underwent treatment less than a year prior to enrollment.

The yoga program the women participated in consisted of four components: breathing exercises, meditation, sitting yogic postures, and movement-oriented yogic postures. All techniques were learned either sitting in a chair or on a cushion on the floor. The women attended an hour-long class once a week for seven weeks, and were given printed material and audiotapes to take home that reviewed what they learned during class. They were encouraged to practice daily at home and to continue practicing after the seven-week course finished.

The women completed questionnaires one week after the last class, and at one and three months, to evaluate and score physical and psychological effects. Results showed a decrease in cancer-related symptoms and cancer-related intrusive thoughts; which means that the yoga program not only eased the symptoms, it also improved their peace of mind.

Yoga Improves Physical Functioning & Overall Health Perception

Another yoga study at the same center included 61 women with breast cancer undergoing radiation therapy. The yoga course greatly resembled the program of the former study, but the women attended hour-long classes twice a week for the duration of their radiation therapy. Participants were also given materials that reviewed the techniques to enhance their home practice.

The women filled out questionnaires before the program began, one week after their last radiation therapy session, and at one and three months. One week after radiation therapy, women reported an improved overall perception of health and better physical functioning scores.

An interesting positive correlation appeared at one- and three-month markers that piqued the interest of the researchers. One month after radiation therapy was completed, women reported greater amounts of cancer-related intrusive thoughts. Three months after therapy, the same women reported greater “finding meaning” scores, which refer to the ability to discover meaning in their cancer experience.

The correlation suggested to researchers that women who observed more intrusive thoughts also found more meaning in the experience. In a sense, the yoga practice may have helped the thoughts rise to the surface of the participants’ consciousness, allowing the women to acknowledge the obtrusive thoughts, and may have helped them process the thoughts into a greater meaning.

The same researchers received a $2.4 million grant from the National Cancer Institute in 2009 to study the effects of yoga on breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. The study is currently underway at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston and is actively recruiting women. Researchers plan to complete the study in April 2014, and hopefully the participants will have more little miracles to report.

Michelle WhitmerAuthor bio: Michelle Whitmer has been a medical writer and editor for The Mesothelioma Center since 2008. Focused on the benefits of natural and holistic medicine for cancer patients, Michelle is a certified yoga instructor and earned her B.A. in Environmental Studies from Rollins College in Florida.

Sources:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20388445?dopt=Citation

http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01202851

http://psychcentral.com/news/archives/2006-05/uotm-lng051206.html

http://faculty.mdanderson.org/Lorenzo_Cohen/

http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/103/1/11.full.pdf+html

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pon.1021/abstract

http://jco.ascopubs.org/content/25/28/4387.short

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